Treatment Of Breast Cancer In Germany
Treatment of breast cancer in Germany
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor originating from the epithelium of the mammary gland. Risk factors for the development of this pathology are early menarche, absence of labor, abortion, late menopause, smoking, alcohol, diabetes mellitus, obesity or an increased body mass index, low physical activity.
Diagnostics of the disease
Early diagnostics of breast cancer is the key to the successful treatment. The guaranteed result of the disease detection gives an annual preventive examination by a mammologist or oncologist, mammography (especially for women over 40) and ultrasound of the mammary glands.
One of the important elements of diagnostics is the determination of a gene mutation. In 3-10% of breast cancer patients, the development of the disease is associated with the presence of mutations in the genes BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK, NBS1, and tP53. This test is important in determining further treatment tactics and the possible outcome.
For foreigners who want to undergo comprehensive diagnostics in Germany, it will be more comfortable to use the assistance of the medical provider Booking Health. Booking Health will assist in organizational matters, as well as in the selection of best clinics and qualified specialists. Using the help of Booking Health, you can choose a diagnostic and treatment program at the best prices.
Symptoms of breast cancer
Sometimes the first manifestation of breast cancer may be discharge from the nipple. Most often is serous or bloody, but such discharge can also occur in benign diseases of the ducts of the mammary gland.
With more advanced processes, clinical symptoms are much brighter:
- Symptom of diffuse swelling of the breast tissue, or a symptom of "lemon peel".
- Changes in the central part of areola, swelling and flattening of the nipple (symptom of Krause).
- Various types of organ deformation.
- Skin retraction noticeable by eye at the site of the tumor (symptom of "ubiquitization").
- Ulceration of the skin over the tumor.
- Retraction and fixation of the nipple.
- Presence of conglomerate of dense, motionless, often "hammered" lymph nodes in the axillary region.
Classification of breast cancer
The tumor process begins mostly in the ducts of different sizes, mostly the small ones. Much less often, the process begins in the epithelium of the lobules, giving origin to lobular breast cancer.
Thus, in terms of morphology, breast cancer is represented by three large groups:
- Non-infiltrating tumors:
- Intraductal cancer.
- Lobular cancer.
- Infiltrating tumors:
- Infiltrating ductal carcinoma.
- Infiltrating ductal carcinoma with a predominance of the intraductal component.
- Infiltrating lobular cancer.
- Mucous cancer.
- Medullary cancer.
- Papillary cancer.
- Tubular cancer.
- Adenocystic cancer.
- Secretory (juvenile) cancer.
- Apocrine cancer.
- Cancer with metaplasia (squamous, spindle, chondroid, osteoid, mixed types).
Breast cancer treatment
Treatment of breast cancer in Germany begins immediately after the diagnosis making. There are currently many treatment options for breast cancer. The choice of a particular method depends on the stage of the cancer, its spreading to distant organs, type of cancer, etc. The main methods for treating breast cancer are: surgical treatment, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. For more information follow the link treatment of breast cancer in Germany.
Surgical treatment of breast cancer is the most common method and, as a rule, is combined with radiotherapy (radiation) or chemotherapy that is used before or after surgery.
Surgical operations for breast cancer are divided into organ-conserving surgery (removal of only the part of the breast in which the tumor is located) and mastectomy (complete removal of the breast in which the cancer has developed).
Surgical removal of the mammary gland, as a rule, is combined with the removal of lymph nodes in the axillary region (cancer is located in this area very often). A cosmetic defect that develops as a result of removal of the mammary gland can be corrected by means of the reconstructive surgery (silicone implants, etc.).
Radiation therapy is a method of treating breast cancer, which is usually performed after surgery to remove the tumor. The main goal of radiotherapy is to destroy cancer cells that were not removed during surgery.
Chemotherapy is a method of treating breast cancer, which allows to kill rapidly multiplying cancer cells, or slow down their reproduction. Chemotherapy as an independent treatment method is not effective in the fight against breast cancer, but in combination with surgical treatment and radiotherapy it demonstrates very good results.
As a rule, chemotherapy involves taking several drugs at the same time. The choice of a drug depends on many factors and is determined by the attending physician.